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Application of copper sulfate in aquaculture
Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is white or greyish white powder. The aqueous solution is weakly acidic and blue. Copper sulfate is an important raw material for the preparation of other copper compounds. Is one of the most widely used drugs and most of us for having heard it many times in aquaculture, we often used is copper sulfate, blue vitriol, vitriol with 5 crystal water (CuSO 5H O) content of 96%. It has wide source and low price, can kill a variety of bacteria, parasites, algae and moss and other aquatic predators.
First, the common role of copper sulfate
1, as a feed additive, copper is a component of various metal enzymes in animal body, directly involved in energy and substance metabolism in vivo. Copper is involved in the osteogenesis of animals, and is closely related to the metabolism of collagen and melanin formation in mitochondria. In addition, the appropriate amount of copper ions can also activate pepsin, improve the digestive function of animals. Long time copper deficiency in animals can lead to iron absorption and anemia. Excessive copper content in feed may lead to copper accumulation in animal liver, which may have adverse effects on human consumption.
2, as the use of algae: copper sulfate has a strong killing effect on algae, aquaculture is often used to kill malignant algae, such as cyanobacteria. General Algaecidal concentration is 0.8ppm. due to algae after the death of the pond will lead to hypoxia, so attention should be paid to the selection in the sunny morning, and to do aerobic measures, because some of the algae will produce toxic algae in death, it should be appropriate for water or water detoxification.
3, use as pesticides: copper ions can damage the parasite enzyme activity, and thus damage the metabolism of worms, poisoning a variety of flagellates ciliates and some crustacean animal, such as cryptobia branchialis, Trichodina, Chilodonella and protozoa anchor head flea etc.. The general use of copper sulfate with ferrous sulfate, with the mixture at the ratio of 5:2 to 0.5ppm, copper sulfate ferrous sulfate with 0.2ppm full pool splash.
4, as the use of fungicides: copper sulfate Cu2- ion is heavy metal ions, heavy metal ions can make the protein lose its activity, the virus is composed of protein, so it can kill bacteria and viruses. Copper sulfate is often used to collocation some drugs such as insecticidal trichlorfon, phoxim, pyrethroid insecticide and drug, has good effects on treating bacterial leukemia.
The use of common compatibility 5, copper sulfate and copper sulfate: Huang Yi mix, can enhance the efficacy of "copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate combined application could increase the efficacy of the ferrous sulfate as the auxiliary medicine, have convergence effect, mainly for copper sulfate to remove obstacles to kill the parasite f more copper sulfate and activated zinc combination or increase efficacy.
Two, the use of copper sulfate precautions: low concentration of copper sulfate solution on the tissue can act as a convergence, high concentrations of stimulation and corrosion.
1, copper sulfate insecticidal bactericidal effect by temperature: its efficacy is proportional to the water temperature, so the amount of hot days should be reduced, the higher the temperature, copper sulfate insecticidal and bactericidal effect is more obvious. When the water temperature is higher than 30, the toxicity of copper sulfate increases, and the dosage of copper sulfate should not exceed 300 grams per mu. Otherwise, it may cause fish poisoning and flooding. For conventional fish farming, the winter spring season 0.7 - 1 mg / liter, summer and autumn 0.5--0.7 mg / liter is reasonable, the use of the concentration should be 0.3 - 0.5 mg / liter.
2. Effect of copper sulfate by the insecticidal effect of suspended matter in water and dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and alkalinity in the acid condition, the increase of copper ions, keep more free state alkalinity, carbonate ion will increase, precipitation occurs with copper sulfate, reduce the effect of disinfect. More suspended matter will affect efficacy.
2, different fishes have different sensitivity to different drugs, a safe concentration varies in different species, grass carp and Bighead Carp crucian carp bream are sensitive to CuSO4, such as Colossoma brachypomum of trichlorfon sensitive and drug resistance to CuSO4, Argus sensitive to ferrous sulfate, insects, crustaceans with pyrethroid sensitive and 100 fish high tolerance ability. Testudoid on drug sensitivity is low. Some scaleless fish such as catfish is sensitive to copper sulfate.
3, aquatic copper sulfate and lime can not be used simultaneously.
4, copper sulfate solution has corrosive effect on metal, prohibited iron containers, must use porcelain or wood or plastic containers.
5. When copper sulfate kills algae, it may cause oxygen shortage in the pond, so attention should be paid to oxygen increasing.
6, because copper sulfate will stimulate the small melon worm produce cyst, affect the killing effect, so generally do not use copper sulfate treatment of small melon disease.
Three. Toxic and side effects of copper sulfate
1, the toxicity of copper sulfate to fish is mainly to destroy the respiratory system of fish, and it is more toxic under hypoxia. Therefore, to grasp the accurate dosage, beware of excessive damage.
2. Common copper sulfate caused osteonecrosis of the aquatic animals, decreased hematopoietic function, decreased intestinal trypsin and a- amylase activity. The accumulation of copper ions in the pond causes damage to the liver and kidney of fish.
3. Aquatic products can be replaced by chelated copper instead of copper sulfate to reduce the toxicity to fish.
4, due to copper sulfate poisoning caused by overdose on fish, can immediately change the water, oxygen, or splash EDTA for detoxification.

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