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Common problems in electroplating of copper sulfate
Common problems in copper electroplating:

Copper sulfate plating plays an important role in PCB electroplating. The quality of copper electroplating directly affects the quality and mechanical properties of electroplating copper layer and has a certain effect on the subsequent processing. Therefore, how to control the quality of copper electroplating is an important part of PCB electroplating, and it is also a difficult process for many large factories to control the electroplating. One of。 The common problems of acid copper plating are as follows: 1. Rough electroplating; 2. Electroplating (plate) copper particles; 3. Electroplating pits; 4. White or uneven color. In view of the above problems, we made some summaries, and made some brief analysis, solution and preventive measures.

One
Electroplating roughness


General plate angle rough, most of the electroplating current caused by large, can be low current and check the current to check the current display is abnormal; the whole board is rough, generally will not appear, but the author has also met in the customer place, and later found that the temperature was low in winter, the amount of light agent was insufficient; and sometimes some rework faded board board There will be a similar situation when the surface treatment is not clean.

Two
Plate surface copper particles

There are many factors that cause the copper particles to appear on the surface. It is possible to transfer copper from the copper to the whole process. The author met in a state-run factory that the copper particles on the plate surface caused by copper precipitation.

The surface copper particles caused by copper precipitation may be caused by any process of copper precipitation. When the alkaline deoiling is high in water hardness and more drilled dust (especially on the double-sided plate without removing glue slag), it not only causes the roughness of the surface, but also causes the roughness in the hole, but generally only causes the roughness in the hole, and the slight pitting of the surface of the plate can be removed. The quality of the corrosion agent hydrogen peroxide or sulfuric acid is too poor or ammonium persulfate (sodium) is too high, the general suggestion should be at least CP grade. Besides, the industrial grade can cause other quality faults. The copper content of the etching groove or the low temperature causes the slow precipitation of copper sulfate crystal, the turbidity of the trough liquid and the pollution. Most of the activated liquid is caused by pollution or improper maintenance, such as the leakage of the filter pump, the low proportion of the tank liquid and the high copper content (over 3 years) of the copper content (over the use of the activated cylinder for more than 3 years), which will produce granular suspended substance or impurity colloid in the bath liquid, adsorbed on the surface of the plate or the wall of the hole, and will be accompanied by the rough formation in the hole. Solution or acceleration: the use time of the bath liquid is too long to appear turbid, because most of the solution is prepared with fluboric acid, so it will attack the glass fiber in FR-4, cause the silicate and calcium salt in the slots, and the increase of copper content and tin content in the bath will make the surface copper particles produced. The copper trough itself is mainly caused by the excessive activity of the slotting fluid, the dust in the air and the small particles suspended in the slots. It can be effectively solved by adjusting the technological parameters, adding or replacing the air filter filter core and the whole groove filtering. After depositing copper, temporary storage of dilute acid tank of copper sink, the bath must be kept clean, and the tank fluid should be replaced in time. The storage time of the copper plate should not be too long, otherwise the surface of the plate is easy to oxidize. Even in the acid solution, it will oxidize, and the oxide film is more difficult to be treated after oxidation, so the plate will also produce copper particles.
In addition to the surface oxidation caused by the plate surface oxidation, the plate surface copper particles, which are made by the copper sinking process, are generally distributed more evenly on the plate surface, and the regularity is stronger. The pollution produced here will cause the production of copper particles on the copper plate surface, and some small test plates can be used separately to handle the control and control separately. The field fault plate can be solved by the soft brush and light brush. The graphic transfer process: the development of the residual adhesive (when the extremely thin film is electroplated can also be coated and coated), or after the development, the cleaning is not clean, or the plate is placed for too long after the transfer of the graphics, resulting in the different degree of oxidation of the plate surface, especially the bad shape cleaning. When the air pollution is heavy in the condition or in the storage workshop. The solution is to strengthen water washing, strengthen the plan and arrange the progress, and enhance the acid degreasing intensity.

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